- With the respect to urethral trauma, the recently published American Urological Association (AUA) urotrauma guidelines state that:
|a||endoscopic realignment should be attempt in all patients presented with traumatic urethral disruption injuries regardless of hemodynamic stability.|
|b||patients who undergo successful urethral realignment have negligible rate of urethral stricture disease following catheter removal.|
|c.||placement of a suprapubic catheter and delayed urethral reconstruction remain an acceptable management option for many patients.|
|d.||surgeon should perform sustained attempt at endoscopic realignment in order to ensure urethral continuity is obtained in the acute setting.|
- Which patients had worse chronic kidney disease upstaging-free survival relative to patients on active surveillance in the multivariate model?
|a||patient undergoing radical nephrectomy.|
|b||patients undergoing partial nephrectomy.|
|c.||patient under going cryoablation.|
|d.||a and b|
- Removal of an asymptomatic stone in a patient with recurrent urinary tract infection is least likely to impact the chance of repeat urinary tract infection if the preoperative culture shows:
- Concerning cryosurgery, in order to cause cell death by coagulative necrosis, temperatures at or below what level are advised?
- According to the AUA best practice Statement on antimicrobial prophylaxix for urological surgery, the recommended duration of antibiotics for a patient undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy who does not have a history of pyelonephritis or recurrent UTI is:
|a||24 hours or less.|
|b||48 to 72 hours|
|c.||72 to 96 hours.|